Army officers swear allegiance to the new government in Palace Square, before the Winter Palace. November-December 1917.

I. (General introduction)


Troops of the Eighth Route Army. Yan’an, China, 1938. Photo: Walter Bosshard

Ehman’s Wow! signal, 6EQUJ5, circled in red in a printout of vertically aligned single digits indicating radiowaves.
Ehman’s Wow! signal, 6EQUJ5, circled in red in a printout of vertically aligned single digits indicating radiowaves.
Ehman’s Wow! signal, 6EQUJ5.



The Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies in Tauride Palace, 1917. For a brief period in February and March, the cabinet of the Provisional Government also sat in the Tauride, making it the nexus of all democracy in Russia.


  1. A completed physics would represent a total and finished description and explanation of reality; would represent the only complete description (the only actual description). There can be no “nomological danglers” (Smart, Feigl).
  2. All non-physical facts can be either reduced to purely physical facts (the non-physical element was a superstition), or they can be eliminated from the schema (the fact was a superstition in toto).
  3. Three formulations: (1) An exhaustive list of all scientific facts is an exhaustive list of all facts. (2) To possess every physical fact is to possess all facts. …



Posters from the CPB’s youth wing, the YCL, calling for the boycott of the European elections in May. Credit: Party9999999


An early Soviet propaganda poster telling peasants not to vote for religious authorities, landlords or capitalists.
An early Soviet propaganda poster telling peasants not to vote for religious authorities, landlords or capitalists.
Democratic privileges are always eagerly exploited by the oppressor classes: ‘Peasant; don’t elect these people. They were your enemies and remain your enemies.’ USSR, c. 1920s

A note on revisions


Knocked out Pz. Kpfw. VI Ausf. B of s.Pz.Abt. 505, destroyed by Soviet assault aircraft on the highway between the Peise Peninsula and the city of Fishhausen, east Prussia, circa. 1945

Valarie Renaux

A ghost in the machine. I study philosophy.

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